<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Sebastien Roblin"data-reactid =" 18 ">Sebastien Roblin

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Security, Asia"data-reactid =" 19 ">Security, Asia

That's the theory, at least.

In 2003, a Chinese submarine could have sunk for a terrifying reason: the suffocation of the crew

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Key point: Because it kept the silence of the radio, the PLAN had realized that nothing was happening before ten days. "data-reactid =" 22 ">Key point: Because it kept the silence of the radio, the PLAN had realized that nothing was happening before ten days.

On April 25, 2003, the crew of a Chinese fishing boat noticed a strange sight: a periscope drifting adrift over the surface of the water. The fishermen informed the Navy of the People's Liberation Army (PLAN), which immediately sent two ships to investigate.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "(This first appeared earlier in the year.) "data-reactid =" 24 ">(This first appeared earlier in the year.)

<p class = "canvas-atom-canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "At the beginning, the PLAN estimated that the contact was a sub -marine intruder from South Korea or Japan, but when the Chinese staff finally regained the appearance of the fall, he realized that it was all over the place. one of its own diesel-electric submarines, the Ming class 361. "data-reactid =" 25 "> In the beginning, the PLAN felt that the contact was a submarine intruder from South Korea or Japan, but when the Chinese staff finally found the appearance of ruin, he understood that it was about one of his diesel-electric submarines, the Ming class 361.

When they embarked on April 26, they found the seventy staff members shot dead at their stations.

<p class = "canvas-atom web-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The military commissioner and former president Jiang Zemin recognized the tragic incident of 2 May 2003, in a declaration honoring the sacrifice of the lives of Chinese sailors and loosely calling the cause of "mechanical failure". "data-reactid =" 27 "> The military commissioner and former president Jiang Zemin acknowledged the tragic incident of May 2, 2003 in a declaration honor the sacrifice of life of Chinese sailors and vaguely qualify the cause of "mechanical failure".

A month later, an investigation by his commission resulted in the dismissal of the North Sea Fleet Commander and Commissioner and the downgrading or dismissal of six or eight other officers for "inappropriate command and control". Later, Jiang and President Hu Jintao would have visited the recovered submarine and met the families of the deceased.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "recommended: Stealth vs. Air Defenses of North Korea: who wins?"data-reactid =" 29 ">recommended: Stealth vs. Air Defenses of North Korea: who wins?

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "recommended: American battleships went to war against North Korea"data-reactid =" 30 ">recommended: American battleships went to war against North Korea

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "recommended: 5 possible places of World War III in 2018"data-reactid =" 31 ">recommended: 5 possible places of World War III in 2018

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The Chinese government is not willing to transparency with regard to military accidents, for example, it does not disclose the results of its investigations jet fighters and he has never publicly acknowledged previous submarine accidents. At the time, some commentators surprise expressed that Beijing acknowledged the incident and hypothesized that it was indirectly related to contemporary criticism of its attempts to minimize the SARS epidemic. "data-reactid =" 32 "> The Chinese government is not willing to be transparent about its military accidents, for example, it does not disclose the results of its investigations into jet fighters and he has never publicly acknowledged previous submarine accidents. At the time, some commentators surprise expressed Beijing acknowledged the incident and inferred that it was indirectly linked to contemporary criticism of Beijing's attempts to minimize the SARS epidemic.

The 035 Ming-class submarine was an obsolete second-generation model of the Soviet-style class, which in turn was a Soviet development of the German XXI-type "electric submarine" of the Second World War. World War. The first two types of 035 were built in 1975 but remained easy to detect compared to contemporary American or Russian designs. Although China has exploited many diesel submarines because of navigability problems, they have rarely ventured beyond coastal waters at this time.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Nevertheless, Chinese shipyards have continued to build bets up to date Ming- class boats until the 1990s. 361 It was one of the last 035G-type Ming III models, which allowed submerged submarines to be hijacked with guided torpedoes. Entering service in 1995, it and three sister ships numbered from 359 to 362 were the 12th Submarine Brigade of the North Sea Fleet based in Liaoning Province. You can see them together in this photo. "data-reactid =" 34 "> Nevertheless, Chinese shipyards continued to build up-to-date Ming class ships until the 1990s. 361 It was one of the last 035G-type Ming III models, which allowed submerged submarines to be hijacked with guided torpedoes. Entering service in 1995, it and three sister ships numbered from 359 to 362 were the 12th Submarine Brigade of the North Sea Fleet based in Liaoning Province. You can see them together in this photo.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "361 was deployed during a naval exercise in the Bohai Sea, in the Gulf of Yellow Sea east of Beijing and Tianjing. Exceptionally, a senior naval officer, Commodore Cheng Fuming, was on board. In his last log of 16 April, the submarine was on the silent march as it left Changshang Island to return to a base in Weihai, Shandong Province. "Data-reactid =" 35 ">361 was deployed during a naval exercise in the Bohai Sea, in the Gulf of Yellow Sea east of Beijing and Tianjing. Exceptionally, a senior naval officer, Commodore Cheng Fuming, was on board. In his latest logbook, on April 16, the submarine was on the silent march as it left Changshang Island to return to its Weihai base in Shandong Province.

<p class = "canvas-atom-canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Because it kept the radio silent, the PLAN did not realize that nothing was happening until ten days later. 361 has been found after its presence has been reported remains uncertain. Several stories imply that the ship was submerged, but the fact that it was quickly towed to the port means that it had surfaced. "Data-reactid =" 36 "> Because it was silent radio, the PLAN did not realize that everything was fine until ten days later. 361 has been found after its presence has been reported remains uncertain. Several accounts imply that the ship was submerged, but the fact that it was quickly towed to the port implies that it had surfaced.

<p class = "canvas-atom web-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The lack of clear official explanation led to many theories over the years: the typical complement of a type 035 submarine is fifty-five to fifty-seven people but 361 had seventy on board. Officially, they were coaches, but the conditions would have been rather narrow. The presence of additional staff and senior officer Commodore Cheng leads to the following general conclusion: 361 "data-reactid =" 37 "> The lack of clear official explanation has led to various theories over the years.The typical complement of a type 035 submarine is fifty-five to fifty-seven people but 361 had seventy on board. Officially, they were coaches, but the conditions would have been rather narrow. The presence of additional staff and senior officer Commodore Cheng leads to the following general conclusion: 361 was not on routine mission.

<p class = "canvas-atom web-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Indeed, some commentators have assumed that the Additional crew was observing tests of an experimental system of independent propulsion of air (Air Independent Propulsion – AIP) that would have offered greater stealth and underwater endurance. 308 was used to test an AIP disc, and Stirling AIP discs would soon equip the prolific type 041-type submarines that are prowling today in the seas. "In fact, some commentators have assumed that the additional crew was observing tests of an experimental system of independent air propulsion (AIP) that would have offered greater stealth endurance. In this case, another submarine type 035G, 308 was used to test an AIP disc, and the Stirling AIP discs would soon equip the prolific Yuan class 041 submarines that roam the seas today.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Another theory leaks allowed seawater to mix with battery acid, forming deadly chlorine gas that poisoned the crew. Hong Kong Sing Tao Daily claims the submarine was embarked on a "dangerous" anti-submarine drive, and this "human error" led to an uncontrollable nosebleed, which blocked it at the bottom of the sea. "data-reactid =" 41 "> Other theory leaks allowed seawater to mix with battery acid, forming deadly chlorine gas that poisoned the crew. Hong Kong Sing Tao Daily claims the submarine was embarked on a "dangerous" anti-submarine drive, and this "human error" led to an uncontrollable nosebleed, which blocked it on the seabed.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "However, the most widely accepted explanation today Was the first published by Hong Kong Wen Wei Po, a pro-Beijing newspaper: the crew was suffocated by the diesel engine of the submarine. "data-reactid =" 42 "> However, the most widely accepted explanation today was published for the first time by Hong Kong. Wen Wei Po, a pro-Beijing newspaper: the crew was suffocated by the diesel engine of the submarine.

A conventional diesel electric submarine uses an air-breathing diesel engine to recharge its batteries for submarine propulsion. This is usually done on the surface, but a submarine that tries to stay undetected can also navigate just below the surface and use a snorkel to suck in air. The snorkel is designed to seal automatically if the water level gets too high.

<p class = "canvas-atom text-canvas Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "According to Wen Wei Po, 361 used to run its diesel during snorkeling when high water levels caused the air intake valve to close – or the valve could not be shut off. open properly due to a malfunction. However, his diesel engine did not stop as he should have done in response. You can find what seems to be a translated version of the article right here"data-reactid =" 44 "> According to Wen Wei Po, 361 used to run its diesel during snorkeling when high water levels caused the air intake valve to close – or the valve could not be shut off. open properly due to a malfunction. However, his diesel engine did not stop as he should have done in response. You can find what seems to be a translated version of the article right here.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Apparently, the engine has consumed most of the The crew could have been light-headed and short-winded for the first minute and start to faint at the second minute. Negative air pressure also made it impossible to hatches opened Reuters article published in 2013 say again This theory also evokes the possibility that the exhaust gases have been improperly discharged into the hull, which has had a fatal effect. "data-reactid =" 45 "> Apparently, the engine consumed most of the submarine's air in just two minutes, and felt dizzy and breathless for the first minute and would have started to lose consciousness at the second minute.The negative air pressure also made it impossible to open the hatches.A Reuters article published in 2013 say again This theory, as well as the possibility that the exhaust was improperly discharged into the hull, had a fatal effect.

Each of these explanations would reflect serious gaps in crew training and mechanical performance.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The recent tragic loss of the Argentine submarine San Juan, fire rage among Russian submarines anchored in the kilo class in Vladivostok (a drill, according to Moscow), and fortunately not fatal but very expensive flood of the Indian nuclear submarine Arihant point out that despite being debatable the the most frightening weapon system on the planet, submarines remain dangerous to operate even when they are not engaged in a war. Even brief breakdowns in crew discipline or mechanical reliability can quickly turn stealthy underwater marauders into water coffins. "Data-reactid =" 47 "> The recent tragic loss of the Argentine submarine San Juan, fire rage among Russian submarines anchored in the kilo class in Vladivostok (a drill, according to Moscow), and fortunately not fatal but very expensive flood of the Indian nuclear submarine Arihant point out that despite being debatable the the most frightening weapon system on the planet, submarines remain dangerous to operate even when they are not engaged in a war. Even brief breakdowns in crew discipline or mechanical reliability can quickly turn underwater stealth marauders into watery coffins.

Only high standards of maintenance, manufac- turing and crew training can prevent deadly peacetime disasters – standards that are difficult for many countries to meet, but which the PLA Navy aspires to as it continues to develop. and to professionalize its forces at an extraordinary pace.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Sébastien Roblin holds a master's degree in conflict resolution from Georgetown University and has been a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in the fields of education, assembly and resettlement of refugees in France and the United States. He is currently writing about security and military history for The war is boring."data-reactid =" 49 ">Sébastien Roblin holds a master's degree in conflict resolution from Georgetown University and has been a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in the fields of education, assembly and resettlement of refugees in France and the United States. He is currently writing about security and military history for The war is boring.

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