<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Dave Majumdar"data-reactid =" 18 ">Dave Majumdar

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Security, "data-reactid =" 19 ">Security,

So what happened?

Introducing X-32 stealth fighter (the plane that could have replaced the F-35)

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Key point: "Overall, it is very likely that the Boeing would have encountered the same type of technical problems, cost overruns and delays as Lockheed on the X-32"."data-reactid =" 22 ">Key point: "Overall, it is very likely that the Boeing would have encountered the same type of technical problems, cost overruns and delays as Lockheed on the X-32".

On October 26, 2001, the US Department of Defense announced that the Lockheed Martin X-35 had won the Joint Strike Fighter competition against the Boeing X-32.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "(This first appeared at the end of 2015.)"data-reactid =" 24 ">(This first appeared at the end of 2015.)

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The victory ensured Lockheed's future in As a Manufacturer for All The resulting Lockheed F-35 has experienced a myriad of delays, technical problems, unrecoverable technical deficiencies and huge cost overruns – already the largest defense program ever, with an estimated $ 233 billion in 2001 for a total of 2,866 aircraft, the F-35 program would now cost more than $ 391 billion to jets, according to the Government Accountability Office. "Data-reactid =" 25 "> This victory ensured the future of Lockheed as the manufacturer of all fifth-generation fighter platforms in America, however, the resulting Lockheed F-35 suffered a myriad delays, technical problems, sunk technical problems and cost overruns.The largest defense program ever, with an estimated price of $ 233 billion in 2001 for a total of 2,866 aircraft, F-35 would now cost more than $ 391 billion for 2,457 jets, according to the Government Accountability Office.

In addition, while the F-35B, a short takeoff vertical landing, was originally expected to reach initial operational capability with the US Marines in 2010, it only achieved this goal in 2015, five years behind schedule. . At the same time, both the conventional F-35A and F-35C carrier versions had to reach their initial operational capability with Block 3 software in 2012 – but this software package should now be delivered for operational testing in 2017 at the earliest .

Boeing would have done better? Hard to say – the Joint Strike Fighter has always been a technically ambitious and extraordinarily ambitious program. It is likely that Boeing would have encountered similar but different technical and budgetary problems. The fundamental issue with the Joint Strike Fighter was that it was still an overly ambitious program to replace several specialized types with one plane in the hope that it could fulfill each role equally. The result is predictable: a jack-of-all, but none.

One of the main reasons why Lockheed Martin's design was chosen over Boeing is that the X-32's direct lift system – which uses engine thrust to lift the plane – is likely to cause stalls. This is a phenomenon where the hot exhaust gases are reintroduced into the engine, resulting in a loss of power. It was also wondering if the engine would be powerful enough to lift a fully operational F-32. The prototype had to have parts removed to be able to fly. Boeing's case probably did not help the case where she had to re-design the X-32 to meet the modified JSF requirements. An operational F-32 had a configuration very different from that of the X-32.

Even if Boeing had managed to solve the problem of the cells, it would have had to deal with the extremely complex sensor fusion software. The software was always going to be a challenge in the best circumstances. The only advantage that Boeing had was that it had developed the Lockheed Martin F-22 avionics software, but the JSF is much more complex.

Overall, it is very likely that the Boeing would have experienced the same type of technical failures, cost overruns and delays as Lockheed on the X-32. Lockheed mismanaged the F-35 program to some extent, but it was the Pentagon's requirements for an all-in-one miracle aircraft that caused program problems. With one or the other of the companies, the JSF program was almost certainly going to be late and over budget – it was just a matter of what margin.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Dave Majumdar is the former Defense Editor for The National Interest. "data-reactid =" 31 ">Dave Majumdar is the former Defense Editor for The National Interest.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Read the full article"data-reactid =" 32 ">Read the full article