<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Robert Farley"data-reactid =" 18 ">Robert Farley

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Security, "data-reactid =" 19 ">Security,

Did the US Army make the wrong choices?

Meet the stealth fighter YF-23 and the X-32: the jets that have almost replaced the F-22 and F-35.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "If the ATF competition had not occurred at the same time as the collapse of the Soviet Union, the YF-23 might have a chance of resurrection. Some of its features were advanced enough to attract more attention and investment."data-reactid =" 22 ">If the ATF competition had not occurred at the same time as the collapse of the Soviet Union, the YF-23 might have a chance of resurrection. Some of its features were advanced enough to attract more attention and investment.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "(These two pieces appeared separately several years ago.) "data-reactid =" 23 ">(These two pieces appeared separately several years ago.)

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The history of X-32:"data-reactid =" 24 ">The history of X-32:

The Department of Defense did not have to choose the F-35. In the 1990s, both Boeing and Lockheed Martin bid for the next big fighter contract, a plane that would serve in the air force, navy and navy corps, as well as in many air forces. allies of the United States. Boeing served the X-32; Lockheed the X-35.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "recommended: The real reason, China has built a massive army "data-reactid =" 26 ">recommended: The real reason, China has built a massive army

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The Pentagon chose the F-35. Given the struggles of the last decade with the Joint Strike Fighter, it is impossible not to wonder what could have been; What if DoD opted for the Boeing Xe 32 or a combination of the two? "data-reactid =" 27 ">The Pentagon chose the F-35. Given the struggles of the last decade with the Joint Strike Fighter, it is impossible not to wonder what could have been; What if DoD went with Boeing's X-32 instead, or with a combination of both?

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "recommended: Why the Korean War may have never really ended"data-reactid =" 28 ">recommended: Why the Korean War may have never really ended

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "L & # 39; s history:"data-reactid =" 29 ">L & # 39; s history:

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "At the end of the cold war, the Pentagon proposed a joint fighter project in the hope of reducing the overall logistical burden of the forces involved and minimizing development costs.Each of the three combat aircraft flying services required the replacement of the 4th generation aircraft in their inventory; the F-15 and F 16 in the case of the Air Force and the F / A-18 and AV-8B Harrier in the case of the Navy and the Navy Corps. The new fighter therefore needed conventional configurations, carrier and STOVL (short landing data landing). "Data-reactid =" 30 "> At the end of the Cold War, the Pentagon proposed a joint hunter project in the hope of reducing the overall logistic tail of the forces involved, as well as minimizing development costs: each of the three hunter flight services needed to replace the 4th generation aircraft in its inventory; the F-15 and F 16 in the case of the Air Force and the F / A-18 and AV-8B Harrier in the case of the Navy and the Navy Corps. The new fighter therefore needed conventional, transporter and STOVL (short takeoff vertical landing) configurations.

<p class = "canvas-atom-canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The DoD has not, historically, good luck with the joint programs, but it was hoped that increased "matching" of services, combined with more advanced production techniques and more sophisticated logistical procedures, would make a shared fighter more profitable. All parties understood that the winner of the contest would probably win a lot of export success, as many air forces around the world needed a fifth generation fighter. In short, it was the largest contract on the horizon for the post-Cold War defense industry. Boeing and Lockheed Martin won contracts for the development of two demonstrators each. "data-reactid =" 31 "> The DoD did not have good luck with the joint programs, but it was hoped that increased "matching" of services, combined with more advanced production techniques and more sophisticated logistical procedures, would make a shared fighter more profitable. All parties understood that the winner of the contest would probably win a lot of export success, as many air forces around the world needed a fifth generation fighter. In short, it was the largest contract on the horizon for the post-Cold War defense industry. Boeing and Lockheed Martin won contracts to develop two demonstrators each.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "capacities:"data-reactid =" 32 ">capacities:

<p class = "web-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Built according to the same specifications, the X-32 The parameters F-35 performance was relatively similar.Being decided to compete for costs, Boeing designed the X-32 around a one-piece delta wing that would suit all three variants.The X-32 did not have the double flow focused on the F-35 shaft, instead using the same thrust vectorization system like the AV-8 Harrier. The X-32 system was less advanced than the F-35 system, but also less complex. "Data-reactid =" 33 "> Designed to the same specifications, the X-32 and the F-35 had relatively similar performance parameters.To compete on costs, Boeing designed the X-32 around the world. a one-piece delta wing that would suit all three variants.The X-32 did not have the F-35 dual-shaft riser driven by a shaft. same thrust vectorization system like the AV-8 Harrier. The X-32 system was less advanced than the F-35, but also less complex.

The X-32 was designed to reach Mach 1.6 in conventional flight. He could carry six AMRAAMs or two missiles and two bombs in his internal weapon hold. The distance and stealth characteristics were generally similar to those expected from the F-35, and the aircraft body could accommodate much of the advanced electronic equipment that the F-35 currently carries.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Decision:"data-reactid =" 35 ">Decision:

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "One thing is certain, the X-32 was a ridiculously ugly airplane. It looked like nothing so much as the laying of an A-7 Corsair and a manatee atrociously deformed. From an aesthetic point of view, the F-35 is not a prize. The sleek and dangerous lines of the F-22 are missing, but the X-32 gives the F-35 a look quite sexy in comparison. How much should it have? Not at all. How important was it? Good question. Fighter pilots do not like flying planes that could be overturned by a Florida fast boat. "Data-reactid =" 36 "> One thing is certain, the X-32 was a ridiculously ugly airplane. It looked like nothing so much as the laying of an A-7 Corsair and a manatee atrociously deformed. From an aesthetic point of view, the F-35 is not a prize. The sleek and dangerous lines of the F-22 are missing, but the X-32 gives the F-35 a look quite sexy in comparison. How much should it have? Not at all. How important was it? Good question. Fighter pilots do not like flying planes that could be overturned by a Florida fast boat.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "More concretely, Boeing's strategy probably damaged Instead of building a demonstrator capable of meeting the requirements of the three services, Boeing built two demonstrators: one capable of conventional supersonic flight and another of vertical takeoff and landing.The Lockheed prototype could do both . also liked the innovative (if risky) turbolift F-35. Finally, Lockheed's experience with the F-22 suggests that he could probably handle another great stealth fighter project. More concretely, Boeing's strategy has probably hindered its chances, instead of building a fully capable demonstrator According to the needs of the three services, Boeing has built two, 39; one capable of conventional supersonic flight and the other vertical takeoff and landing, as well as the Lockheed prototype. also liked the innovative (if risky) turbolift F-35. Finally, Lockheed's experience with the F-22 suggests that he may be able to handle another major stealth fighter project.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Conclusion:"data-reactid =" 40 ">Conclusion:

<p class = "web-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Chosen in 2001, the F-35 continued to become the largest and most challenging Pentagon supply project ever, the X-32 has escaped all important challenges for the F-35. The X-32 has never been confronted with decades of testing and redesign; it has never experienced massive cost overruns; he's never been subjected to a series of endless articles on how he can not face an F-16A. The nostalgia of what could have been common in air competitions and it is impossible to say if the X-32 would have encountered the same difficulties as the F-35. Given the complex nature of advanced hunter projects, the answer is almost certainly yes. "Data-reactid =" 41 "> Chosen in 2001, the F-35 has become the largest Pentagon supply project of all time.The X-32 has escaped all problems. important challenges for the F-35. The X-32 has never been confronted with decades of testing and redesign; it has never experienced massive cost overruns; he's never been subjected to a series of endless articles on how he can not face an F-16A. The nostalgia of what could have been common in air competitions and it is impossible to say if the X-32 would have encountered the same difficulties as the F-35. Given the complex nature of advanced hunter projects, the answer is almost certainly yes.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "But in hindsight, that would almost certainly have done It would more logical to use a VSTOL alternative fighter for the Marine Corps, which would have eliminated the more complex aspect of the "joint" project, namely the need to create an aircraft sharing essential components between three variants extremely different. It would also have helped divide wealth among different major defense contractors, a practice that is becoming a priority in the Pentagon. Of course, since the STOVL aspects of the F-35 and X-32 were taken into account at the proposal stage, it would have been necessary to go back to 1993, not only in 2001. "data-reactid = "42"> But in hindsight, it might have been more logical to choose a VSTOL alternative fighter for the Marine Corps, which would have eliminated the more complex aspect of the "common" project, the need to create an aircraft which critical components through three very different variants. It would also have helped divide wealth among different major defense contractors, a practice that is becoming a priority in the Pentagon. Of course, since the STOVL aspects of the F-35 and X-32 were integrated at the proposal stage, it would have been necessary to go back to 1993, not just in 2001.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The F-23: "data-reactid =" 43 ">The F-23:

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition, implementation scene at the end of the Cold War, gave a pair of remarkable hunting designs. would eventually choose the F-22 Raptor, widely recognized as the most capable air superiority aircraft of the early twenty-first century. The loser, the YF-23, is now honored by the museums of Torrance (California) and Dayton (Ohio). "Data-reactid =" 44 "> The Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition, held at the end of the Cold War, brought home a pair of remarkable hunter designs. would eventually choose the F-22 Raptor, widely recognized as the most capable air superiority aircraft of the early twenty-first century. The loser, the YF-23, is now honored by the museums of Torrance, California and Dayton, Ohio.

How did the Pentagon choose the F-22 and what impact did it have? We'll never know, but using the F-22 Raptor might have prevented the Pentagon from serious headaches.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "ATF competition: "data-reactid =" 46 ">ATF competition:

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The origins of the ATF competition date back to the early 1980s, it became clear that the Soviets were planning to hunt fighters (the MiG-29 and the Su-27) able to compete effectively with the US Air Force (USAF) F-15 / F-16 high-low mix. The ATF would allow the United States to restore its benefits, potentially on bases (including stealth) where the Soviets would have trouble competing. "Data-reactid =" 47 "> The origins of ATF competition date back to the early 1980s, when it became apparent that the Soviets were planning to hunt fighters (the MiG-29 and the Su-27) able to compete effectively with the US Air Force (USAF) F-15 / F-16 high-low mix. The ATF would allow the United States to restore its benefits, potentially on bases (especially stealthy) where the Soviets would have a hard time competing against each other.

<p class = "canvas-atom-canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "To a large extent, the success of the One of the ATF competitors was overdetermined. The Soviet Union is gone During the competition, the major European aerospace powers have largely refused to compete on the same ground (stealth, super cruises and, possibly, fusion of sensors). The F-22 or F-23 would become the best fighter of the early 21st century; the only question was which plane would gain DoD's investment. And each plane had its advantages. The YF-23 has benefited from a super superior cruising and, in some cases, better stealth performance over the F-22. The F-22 offered a slightly simpler and less risky design, as well as an extraordinary agility that made him a formidable dog hunter. "Data-reactid =" 48 "> The success of one or the other of ATF's competitors has been overdetermined. The Soviet Union is gone During the competition, the major European aerospace powers have largely refused to compete on the same ground (stealth, super cruises and, possibly, fusion of sensors). The F-22 or F-23 would become the best fighter of the early 21st century; the only question was which plane would gain DoD's investment. And each plane had its advantages. The YF-23 has benefited from a super superior cruising and, in some cases, better stealth performance over the F-22. The F-22 offered a slightly simpler and less risky design, as well as an extraordinary degree of agility that made it a formidable dog hunter.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The choice:"data-reactid =" 49 ">The choice:

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "As Dave Majumdar pointed out there is a year, political and bureaucratic factors contributed to the selection of the F-22. Tired of Northrop and McDonnell Douglas (still independent) following the B-2 and A-12 projects, the Pentagon preferred Lockheed. The US Navy did not like the F-23 for idiosyncratic reasons and hoped that the heavily modified F-22 would be a victim. For its part, the Air Force preferred the screaming maneuverability of the F-22, which gave it an advantage in almost all possible combat situations. In a sense, the F-22 (and to some extent its Russian competitor, the PAK-FA) represent the ultimate expression of the air superiority hunter of aircraft age. They can challenge and defeat their opponents in every potential aspect of a fight, while having stealth characteristics that allow them to engage (or deny a commitment) under very advantageous circumstances. "Data-reactid =" 50 "> As Dave Majumdar pointed out there is a year, political and bureaucratic factors contributed to the selection of the F-22. Tired of Northrop and McDonnell Douglas (still independent) following the B-2 and A-12 projects, the Pentagon preferred Lockheed. The US Navy did not like the F-23 for idiosyncratic reasons and hoped that the heavily modified F-22 would be a victim. For its part, the Air Force preferred the screaming maneuverability of the F-22, which gave it an advantage in almost all possible combat situations. In a sense, the F-22 (and to some extent its Russian competitor, the PAK-FA) represent the ultimate expression of the air superiority hunter of aircraft age. They can challenge and defeat their opponents in every potential aspect of a fight, while presenting features of stealth that allow them to engage (or deny a commitment) under extremely advantageous circumstances.

<p class = "canvas-atom-text-canvas Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "If the ATF competition did not take place At the same time as the Soviet Union collapsed, the YF-23 might have a chance of resurrection, and some of its features were sufficiently advanced to attract the attention and influence of the Soviet Union. In addition, the construction of the F-23 alongside the F-22 could have been justified by the maintenance of the health of the US defense industrial base: the choice of the Lockheed aircraft undoubtedly contributed to the decision consolidate Boeing and McDonnell Douglas."data-reactid =" 51 "> If the ATF competition did not take place at the same time as the collapse of the Soviet Union, the YF-23 might have had a chance to Some of its features were sufficiently advanced to go further, and the construction of the F-23 alongside the F-22 could have been justified by the maintenance of the American defense industrial base: the selection of the Lockheed aircraft undoubtedly contributed to the decision to consolidate Boeing and McDonnell Douglas.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Raptor problems: "data-reactid =" 52 ">Raptor problems:

<p class = "canvas-atom-text-canvas Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "As it is the case with the X-32, the YF-23 has never faced the most dramatic problems to afflict the F-22 Raptor. It has never experienced cost overruns, technological failure, snafus software or fatal respiratory problems. These problems, which regularly plague new defense projects (in all fairness, the pilot choking is largely idiosyncratic for the Raptor) have consequent consequences. In the context of the broader demands of the war on terror, the Secretary of State The Robert Gates defense reduced the production of the F-22 amounted to 187 operational aircraft, just as the hunter was going through his youth problems. Although this was understandable at the time, it left the US Air Force with a hunting deficit that only the F-35 could fill. "Data-reactid =" 53 "> As the case with the X-32, the YF-23 has never faced the most dramatic problems to afflict the F-22 Raptor. It has never experienced cost overruns, technological failure, snafus software or fatal respiratory problems. These problems, which regularly plague new defense projects (in all fairness, the pilot choking is largely idiosyncratic for the Raptor) have consequent consequences. In the context of the broader demands of the war on terror, the Secretary of State The Robert Gates defense reduced the production of the F-22 amounted to 187 operational aircraft, just as the hunter was going through his youth problems. Although understandable at the time, this left the US Air Force a hunting deficit that only the F-35 could fill.

Had the YF-23 experienced a smoother development path (a huge "if"), the fighter might not have been confronted with such a hostile environment at the time of its commissioning. But since the YF-23 was generally perceived as the most innovative (and therefore the most risky) model and its price was slightly higher, the odds that it could have passed without a hitch are just as low. And design and production problems could have left even fewer fighters operational at the US Air Force.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Parting Thoughts: "data-reactid =" 55 ">Parting Thoughts:

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "The F-23 included some features this can eventually end up in a sixth generation fighter, or perhaps in the "deep interceptor" of the air force intended to support the B-21 Raiders on the way to their targets. For example, the appearance of the V-tail was mentioned in some of the first conceptualizations for a new generation fighter. And Boeing will no doubt remember his experience with the F-23 thinking about his next fighter. "Data-reactid =" 56 "> The F-23 included some features this can eventually end up in a sixth generation fighter, or perhaps in the "deep interceptor" of the air force intended to support the B-21 Raiders on the way to their targets. For example, the appearance of the V-tail was mentioned in some of the first conceptualizations for a new generation fighter. And Boeing will no doubt remember his experience with the F-23 thinking about his next fighter.

<p class = "canvas-atom web-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "For years, one of the two YF -23 prototypes sitting in the hangar of undesirable jets (more commonly referred to as the research and development hangar) at National Museum of the Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. The YF-23 was just below the last XB-70 Valkyrie, centerpiece of the museum's collection. The two planes have now moved to the fourth building of the recently opened museum, where they continue to represent alternative visions of the future (past) of the air force, visions deeply rooted in the industrial and organizational realities of US air power. "Data-reactid =" 57 "> For years, one of the two prototypes of YF-23 sat in the hangar of undesirable aircraft (better known as the research and development hangar) at National Museum of the Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. The YF-23 was just below the last XB-70 Valkyrie, centerpiece of the museum's collection. Both aircraft have now moved into the newly opened fourth museum building, where they continue to represent alternative visions of the Air Force's (past) future, visions deeply rooted in the industrial and organizational realities of airpower. US.

<p class = "canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) – sm Mt (0.8em) – sm" type = "text" content = "Read the full article"data-reactid =" 59 ">Read the full article